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Triglycerides

Clinical significance

Determination of serum triglyceride concentration is used to assess the possible presence of hypertriglyceridemia (increased blood and serum levels of triglycerides). An elevated level of serum triglycerides increases blood viscosity and precipitates platelet aggregation, which in turn results in diminished vascular flow. In addition, increased triglyceride concentrations in the blood coincide with decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol. Patients with ischemic vascular diseases frequently have elevated serum concentration of triglycerides.

1) Physiologic changes in triglyceride concentration
The intake of fatty meal normally entails an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides. Highest values are measured 6 hours postprandially.

2) Pathologic changes in triglyceride concentration

A)Increased triglyceride concentration in: B)Decreased triglyceride concentration in:
• acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) ,
• Down’s syndrome,
• essential hyperlipidemia types I, II, III, IV and V,
• familial hyperlipoproteinemia (heterozygous),
• glycogen storage disease types I and VI type,
• gout,
• hemochromatosis,
• hirsutism,
• hyperlipidemia,
• hyperlipoproteinemia type I, IIa, IIb, III, IV and V,
• hypothyroidism,
• infection,
• peripheral arterial disease,
• postmenopause,
• pre-eclampsia,
• prolonged use of oral contraceptives,
• sepsis,
• septicemia,
• Tangier disease,
• Von Gierke’s disease,
• Ziev syndrome.
• Anemias
- pernicious anemia,
- thalassaemia major.
• Pankreas
- acute pancreatitis,
- chronic pancreatitis,
- diabetes mellitus,
- pankreatitis.
• Heart diseases
- acute myocardial infarction,
- after severe myocardial infarction
- atherosclerosis,
- coronary artery disease,
- essential hypertension,
- ischemic heart disease
- malignant hypertension,
• Renal disease
- chronic renal failure,
- IgA nephropathy,
- nephrotic syndrome,
- uremia without nephrosis
• Liver disease
- primary sclerosing cholangitis.
• a-α-lipoproteinemia (Tangier disease),
• a-β-lipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome),
• cerebral infarction,
• familial plasma lecithin and cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency,
• hyperparathyroidism,
• hyperthyroidism,
• lactosuria,
• therapy with chenodeoxycholic acid to dissolve cholesterol calculi.